This is distinct from “the Monitor Hypothesis”, which is the fourth of Krashen’s five hypotheses. .. Krashen’s monitor and Occam’s razor. Applied Linguistics, 5. The input hypothesis, also known as the monitor model, is a group of five hypotheses of second-language acquisition developed by the linguist Stephen Krashen in the s and s. Krashen originally formulated the input hypothesis as just one of the five .. ‘Krashen’s Monitor and Occam’s Razor.’ Applied Linguistics. This paper attempts to briefly examine Krashen’s major hypotheses and to reflect some of .. Gregg, K.R. (): Krashen’s Monitor and Occam’s razor. Applied.

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Educators in this period have been debating how best to meet the special needs of these students.

Input hypothesis – Wikipedia

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. He states that libraries are even more important for children growing up without books at home. Here are two articles on his website: Donnelly has written a book with this title.

Citing articles via Web of Science However, they suggest that language learning depends on general cognitive faculties rather than on a specific language acquisition mechanism. Show all extra text Second language learning Krashen believes that there is no fundamental difference between the way we acquire our first language and our subsequent languages.

An introduction to the work of Stephen Krashen

One simple and effective way that teachers can reduce student anxiety about completing the writing task correctly is to show them a model answer.


Krashen develops this argument in a paper criticising the trend to more testing in schools. Chalk-face educators are more likely to favour holistic approaches than politicians, journalists, parents and some school administrators. Subsequent critiques of Krashen have focused more on the pedagogical implications of his theories, for example his claim that comprehensible input is a sufficient condition for language acquisition.

Report of the National Reading Panel. Views Read Edit View history. Infants learn their mother tongue simply by listening attentively to spoken language that is made meaningful to them. Nevertheless, teachers of older students and parents may wish to have a little knowledge of such a contentious pedagogical issue. Krashen claims that cognitive development, including the acquisition of concepts and facts, is more likely to occur through problem-solving than through deliberate study.

It is a hypothesis of second-language acquisition theory, and a field of interest in educational psychology.

Significant numbers of teachers across the world have based their instruction on Krashen’s theories, to the benefit of the learners in their classrooms.

Even assuming the learner has a good knowledge of the rule in question, it is difficult to focus on grammar while simultaneously attempting to convey meaning and possibly feeling. The filtering may occur because of anxiety, poor self-esteem or low motivation. The mother-tongue has no role to play. Competition model Comprehensible output Connectionism Dynamic Systems Theory Generative second-language acquisition Input hypothesis Interaction hypothesis Interface hypothesis Interface position Noticing hypothesis Processability theory Order of acquisition Skill-based theories.

Some educators see Klump, believe that SSR is not the most productive use of instructional time.

Phonics has made a comeback, particularly in the US, where it has been facilitated by the policies enacted under the No Child Left Behind programme in The Psychology of Optimal Experience. What does the Research Say? Curricula that have more breadth than depth often do not allow for the solving of real problems.


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Which Features of Accent affect Understanding? All teachers of non-native English students should regard themselves as teachers of language too.

Monigor knowledge of phonics, spelling, sentence structure and good writing style is gained through reading and writing; it is not the cause of reading and writing ability.

There are many difficulties with the use of the mrashen, making the monitor rather weak as a language tool. A typical example of judicious use of the mother tongue would be for a more proficient Japanese learner of English to explain quickly in Japanese to a less proficient peer what the teacher has told the class to do.

Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use.

Her English developed very fast and towards the end of her first year, she expressed her irritation at the postponement of andd test: Reading is the major factor in the development of writing competence.

Other criticism focuses on problems with peer response, an important stage of process writing.

It is pointless spending a lot of time learning grammar rules, since this will not help us become better users of the language in authentic situations.