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Advantages and drawbacks of restricting the marketing and use of Published on Jan View Download 0. This study is bekendtgfelse aimed at analysing the markets of lead ammunition, lead sinkers and lead candle wicks in the old and new Member States and to assess the economic, social and environmental consequences of potential marketing and use restrictions.
All military use of lead ammunition is outside the scope of this study. However military experience regarding development of substitutes and remediation of shooting has to the extent relevant been presented. Purpose The overall objective of the present project is to assess the impact of potential restrictions of lead ammunition, fishing sinkers and candle wicks containing lead on business and private users.
More specific the objectives of the study are: To provide a quantitative up-to-date assessment of the various uses in the old and new Member States. To identify and analyse the regulation and rules on hunting, shooting and fishing at national or regional level which may have an influence on the use of products in question. To discuss to what extent a common market exist for the products in ques-tion and whether a community wide approach is adequate. To identify the alternatives available to lead for the various applications and assess potential drawbacks of substitutes.
Finally, to estimate the costs related to restrictions on lead in the various bekendtgeelse and compare them to the emission reduction expected. Study team The following bekendttgrelse has contributed to the solving of this assignment: Table of Contents Preface 3 1 Executive summary 7 1. All military use of lead ammunition is, however, outside the scope of this study.
Market Detailed data on consumption of lead as ammunition or for manufacturing of ammunition in the EU 118 and new Member States are generally not available and it has been necessary to assess these data indirectly based on the total num-ber of bwkendtgrelse used in the Bekendtgrekse, the number of hunters and shooters registered in each country and the content of lead in cartridges combined with statistical information on import and export of ammunition to the individual countries.
Based on this approach the total consumption of lead about as ammuni-tion in EU15 is estimated at approximately 38, tonnes of lead yearly. Lead shot ammunition is estimated to account for about 34, ton-nes of lead while lead bullets and bekendtgfelse count for about 4, bekebdtgrelse of lead. The picture of manufacturing is somewhat similar, but Italy is presenting itself as clearly the largest country of manufacturing followed by Germany, Spain, UK and France. The total consumption for manufacturing is estimated at about 53, bdkendtgrelse of lead.
The difference between manufacturing and consumption is export. Data for consumption and manufacturing has furthermore been esti-mated for Hungary, Lithuania and Poland as representatives of the new Mem-ber States. Apart bekendtrelse the countries in which restrictions have been introduced, the con-sumption of lead as ammunition as well as for manufacturing of ammunition should be taken as reasonable stable.
The African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement calls for the bekeendtgrelse out of lead shot for hunting in wetlands. Apart from wetlands, lead shot for hunting is banned in Denmark, the Netherlands and United Kingdom specific sites and species. Restrictions for hunting in forests and other areas will, furthermore, be introduced in Sweden from and in Belgium the Flemish region – in forests from Generally no legal restrictions on the use of lead shot for sports shootings apply apart bekendtgresle Denmark, where the use of lead shot is only allowed on a few speci-fied shooting ranges.
However, a ban on lead shot for bkendtgrelse shooting disci-plines will take effect from January In the Netherlands a ban on the use of lead shoot on shooting ranges is expected shortly. Regarding lead bullets no Existing bekedntgrelse and rules P: How-ever, in Sweden a ban on lead for this purpose will take effect from Substitutes seem to be available for all types of lead ammunition. Most focus has been on substitutes for lead shot. As the ballistic properties of steel shot bekenstgrelse from lead shot, steel shot requires bekdndtgrelse time of acquaintance.
The drawbacks of steel shot may otherwise be summarised as follows: Other alternatives based on e. Regarding sports shooting, the general strategy of the International Sports Shooting Federation regarding the issue of minimizing the environmental con-sequences of the use of lead ammunition is to promote improved lead recovery at shooting ranges. However, due to restrictions on lead shot, steel shot is the type of shoot mainly used in Denmark.
The Danish experiences consider steel shot to be an acceptable alternative to lead shot also for competitions. Experi-ences from other countries have not been available. Alternatives of lead for airgun pellets seem to be tin and zinc-aluminium pel-lets. While tin pellets are claimed to be as accurate and soft as lead pellets, the experience of zinc-aluminium pellets is not always positive.
The major draw-back of tin pellets seems to be a price increase of 1. Substitutes for lead bullets are not as developed as alternatives for shot and pel-lets.
Non-lead ammunition bekendtgreose to be appropriate is being marketed. Devel-opment efforts addressing non-lead bullet ammunition seem, however primarily to be related to military ammunition.
Several techniques are available for lead containment as well as lead recovery from brkendtgrelse ranges. Regarding shooting ranges for riffle and pistol shooting containment measures may include earthen berms as well as bullets traps made of sand, steel or rubber.
Advantages and drawbacks of restricting the marketing and use of …
Regarding shooting ranges for clay pigeons high soil berms up to 20 m are being developed in order to minimize the shot fall zone. Such berms can be equipped with large nets placed vertically on top of the berms in order to intercept shot flying over the berms. Nets can also be placed horizontally in the shot fall zone to catch shot and prevent them from being Options of substitu-tion Recovering of lead from shooting ranges P: A solid asphalt surface may be used as an alternative to hori-zontal nets.
Generally, a process of developing an environmental friendly de-sign of shooting ranges seems to have been initiated. Once contained, lead ammunition can be recovered by a number of techniques including sifting, vacuuming and soil washing. Which technique to apply de-pends heavily on the site conditions, soil composition and level of lead deemed acceptable in the cleaned soil or bullet trap material utilised.
The lead colleted bullet and particles can be directed to recycling. The international sports shooting association ISSF recommends that collec-tion and recycling of the lead from shooting ranges are promoted rather than substitutes for lead ammunition. It is believed that significant improvements in this field are possible, and that shooting ranges can be designed and operated in a way paying full respect to environmental concerns related to inter alia lead.
However, a strategy of improving design and operation of shooting ranges will certainly imply higher cost and it remains to be seen whether this strategy is more or less cost-effective than a strategy of substitution of lead ammunition. The potential environmental and health impact of lead compared to the substi-tutes available may be summarised as follows: Extensive documentation exists of the toxicity of lead towards humans as well as towards plants, animals and micro-organisms. The actual effects, however depends on the actual concentrations and availability of lead in the environment and the sensitivity of the exposed species.
Specific focus has been on the poisoning of waterfowl and other birds by ingestion of lead shot and sinkers and the following secondary poisoning of raptors.
Lead shot and fragments of lead shot in muscle tissues in waterfowl and other game may in special cases form a health risk to humans consuming this game. In soil and other parts of the environment metallic lead as bullets and shot are, furthermore, slowly corroded and turned into toxic lead compounds oxides, carbonates, sulphides etc.
In the environment effects are generally limited to specially contaminated areas. Shooting ranges may be regarded as a type of contaminated areas where remedial action can be required. Lead ammunition is today regarded as the major source of lead contamination of soils slowly causing the content of lead in topsoil to increase.
No compre-hensive assessment of the effects of this increase exists. However, a continued increase will narrow the gap between the current lead content of soil and the levels for which effects may actually be observed and could eventually cause these levels to be exceeded.
Eurovoc All Descriptors
The actual rate of increase should be expected to vary between Member States depending on the present content of lead in soil and the actual load of lead from ammunition and other sources.
Environmental im-pacts of lead com-pared to substitutes P: While the issue of poisoning of waterfowl and other birds is related to the use of lead shot in wetlands and upland areas the issue of soil contamination is re-lated to all types of lead ammunition. Substitutes based on steel, tin, bismuth and tungsten is approved as non-toxic to birds in either USA or Canada.
Regarding other impacts only iron presents a clear improvement compared to lead, while other alternatives suffers from one or more drawbacks inclusive of lack of data. Regarding toxicity in soil the data available for tin, bismuth and tungsten are scarce and does in reality not allow a substantiated conclusion on whether these metals can be regarded as an im-provement compared to lead or not.
It is recommended that research is initiated that can eliminate the current lack of data. This recommendation is supported by the fact that new data on tungsten has indicated effects towards humans e.
The impact of potential restrictions to business and users are assessed as fol-lows: The incremental cost of ammunition is estimated at 22 – 46 for the average European hunter if lead ammunition was to be completely banned for all hunt-ing.
This estimate is based on an estimated 6. To this cost should be added a one-time cost of 50 per testing related to safety testing of a shotgun.
Spread over 5 years this conversion cost corresponds to an annual incremental cost of 13 per hunter. In this estimate lead shot is assumed to be replaced by a mix of steel, tin, bismuth and tungsten shot depending on the local conditions.
To these costs may be added the costs of replacement of old shotguns not able to cope with steel or other shot of similar hardness. How-ever, the owners of these guns may have the option of choosing shot of tin, bismuth or tungsten polymer having softness similar to lead but being more expensive.
On average non-lead shot gun ammunition for hunters are assumed to cost 3 times as much as lead shot ammunition. The incremental cost of ammunition to the average European shooter is esti-mated at 27 – 55 for shotgun ammunition, 2 – 20 for bullet ammunition, and 8 for airgun ammunition, corresponding to a total of 37 – 99, if lead am-munition was to be completely banned for all shooting.
For shotgun ammuni-tion is assumed that lead is substituted by a mix of steel, tin, bismuth and tung-sten ammunition, while for airguns tin pellets is assumed to be an acceptable alternative.
These figures indicated above describes the incremental cost to the average shooter, while a competitive shot gun shooter may have to face extra costs in the range of to annually due to a significantly higher con-sumption of shot gun cartridges. The same picture applies to a competitive pis-tol, rifle or air gun shooter.
To the ammunition cost for shotguns must be added the cost of gun testing, besides that for many shotguns new chokes will have to be installed. Finally, competitive shooters with very high 11181 consumption may face increased barrel wear due to steel shot forcing frequent replacement of weapons. Assum-Business impacts of restrictions on am-munition.
Eurovoc All Descriptors
The direct costs to the industry of a ban on lead shot ammunition in Europe is related to conversion of existing lead based production lines have been esti-mated at approximately million. These costs should be assumed to be included in the incremental costs of ammunition stated above. A ban bekendtggelse lead shot may hit hard on about European companies specialised in manufacturing of lead shot or machinery for manufacturing of lead shot.
Giving the appropriate time of adaptation the production of these companies may be taken over by other European companies thus minimizing the economic impact from the transition process. However, it is at the present stage not possi-ble to assess the social and other costs related to the transition process as these depends heavily on the local conditions in the regions of the companies.