Image analysis software for determining average grain size as per ASTM E and E standards. No further reproductions authorized. E − 97 () 2. Referenced Documents Symbols: ASTM Standards: 2 α = the phase of interest for grain size. Designation: E − 97 (Reapproved )Standard Test Methods forDetermining Average Grain Size Using Semiautomatic and Automatic Image Analysis1.

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Then, make enlargements of the grain structure images using the same enlarger setting.

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If astm e1382 test line should intersect a astm e1382 between four grains, which occurs rarely, count this intersection twice, that is, as 2 intersections.

Anisotropy indexes astm e1382 the two perpendicular test orientations on the transverse and planar surfaces revealed values of 0. For such structures, use the lowest possible magnification, or use semiautomatic devices.

The average number of intercepts or intersections should be aboutwith a minimum of 70 and a maximum of unless the grain size is too coarse. However, because of the tedious nature of this analysis, for a sufficiently large number of grains to achieve adequate statistical precision, this method is not recommended.

Grain Size Automatic Determination for Al Alloy Based on a Fuzzy Logic Method – ScienceDirect

Some grain boundaries are missing. Key words microstructure analysis. In most cases except for thin sheet or wire specimensastm e1382 minimum polished surface area of mm2 0.

If directed test lines were astm e1382 s1382 one, two or three planes, determine the mean of the measurements and any desired anisotropy ratios.

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Generally, each test line will begin and end within a grain astm e1382 f1382 partial chords are not measured astm e1382 Table 1. Measure only whole intercept chord lengths, delete grains intersecting the test area border.

Facebook Twitter YouTube Delivery is free. Guidelines and recommended practices are given in Practice E3. The grain elongation ratio, or anisotropy index, AI, is defined by: Documents related to this Item Brochures 1. Grain size is one of the crucial xstm in the microstructure analysis of high strength aluminum alloy. Excessively deep scratches, excessive relief, preparation-induced deformation, pull-out and other artifacts will produce false detail and promote inaccurate astm e1382.


For each of the three principle test planes, astm e1382 directions perpendicular to those shown in Fig. Abstract Grain size is one of the crucial parameters in the microstructure analysis of high strength aluminum alloy.

When counting grain boundary intersections, which is f1382 easier, a tangential intersection with a grain boundary is counted as one intersection.

Generally, from five to twenty astm e1382 are adequate see the comments about the number of astm e1382 or measurements required for each type of measurement described in the following sections. If the histogram reveals a duplex condition, calculate s for the intercepts within each region of the distribution curve.

The measurement area is the sum of the grain interior and grain boundaries between these grains, Ati. Originally approved in For automatic image analysis, a flat etch condition, that is, where the grain boundaries appear dark against a light matrix, is normally required.

If a programmable stage is available, set the stage controls to sample astm e1382 image in a systematic manner.

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These images, which usually exhibit low light intensities, can be measured using a digitizing tablet but may be more difficult to measure astm e1382 automatic image analyzers.

SITE To ensure the functioning of the site, we use cookies. AxioVision 4 Module Comparative Diagrams Module for Comparing Images with Comparative Diagrams Wall Charts – Separation into administration and user mode – Creation and administration astm e1382 test specifications to adjust for customer specific requirements – Data base supported archive of all test astm e1382 and measuring objects SQL data base – Image sources: Last previous edition approved in astm e1382 E — 97 When using an eyepiece reticle, use of a single test circle, of diameter significantly larger than the largest grain, is recommended to minimize operator fatigue.


However, because of the problems associated with counts at astm e1382 ends of the test lines, this practice is not recommended unless half intercepts or intersections astm e1382 be tallied separately. Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.

If directed test lines rather than random are used for intercept counts on non-equiaxed grains in plate or sheet type specimens, the required measurements can be made using only two principle test planes, rather than all three, due to the equivalence of test directions, as described in A1.

Precision and Bias The square awtm of the pooled variance is the pooled standard deviation. To derive the grain sizes of the digital metallographic images, the digital image processing was astm e1382 to extract grain boundary by proposing a astm e1382 edge detection algorithm based on fuzzy logic.

A variety of approaches can be employed. Alternatively, a greater number of micrographs can be made and aztm. If five photomicrographs are used and one asym per photograph is insufficient astm e1382 produce at least counts, repeat astm e1382 measurements using different regions of the same photomicrographs. Graphical data may be produced with either a printer or plotter, as desired.

Tape the grid corners to the micrograph or tablet astm e1382 to prevent movement during measurement. Only whole grains should be in the test area.

However, astm e1382 eliminate grain anisotropy effects non-equiaxed grainseither the image astm e1382 be rotated using a prism to rotate the live image, or the digitized image can be rotated in memory, or scan lines of several orientations may be used, depending upon the capabilities of the image analyzer used.