Don’t forget: Effective December 9, , the complete E-Payments Routing Directory data files are no longer publicly available on Participant files, are no longer publicly available on Federal Reserve Bank and Treasury Routing Information. Contact information for covering the product offerings provided by on purchasing and managing savings bonds and other Treasury securities.

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The Federal Reserve currently uses several tools to implement monetary policy in support of its statutory mandate to foster maximum employment and stable prices. OMOs can be permanent, including the outright purchase and sale of Treasury securities, GSE debt securities, frbservicew federal agency and GSE MBS; or temporary, including the purchase of these securities under agreements to resell, and the sale of these securities under agreements to repurchase.

The authority to conduct OMOs is granted under Section 14 of the Federal Reserve Act, and the range frbzervices securities that the Federal Reserve is authorized to purchase and sell is relatively limited. OMOs have been used historically to adjust the supply of reserve balances so as to keep the federal funds rate around the target federal rfbservices rate established by the FOMC.

In recent years, the Federal Reserve has also developed other tools to strengthen its control of short-term interest rates and to reduce the large quantity of reserves held by the banking system when needed.

The Federal Reserve provides short-term liquidity to domestic banks and other depository institutions through the discount window. In addition, because of the global nature of bank funding markets, the Federal Reserve has established liquidity arrangements with foreign central banks as part of coordinated international efforts. Traditionally, permanent OMOs have been used to accommodate the longer-term factors driving the expansion of the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet, principally the trend growth of currency in circulation.

In andpermanent open hreasury operations were also used to extend the average maturity of securities held in the SOMA. The composition of the SOMA is presented in table 2. The Federal Reserve’s outright holdings of securities are reported weekly in tables 1, 3, 5, and 6 teeasury the H. Frbservicee may not sum to total because of rounding.

Does not include investments denominated in foreign currencies or unsettled transactions. Current face value of the securities, which is the remaining principal balance of the securities. On September 28,the Federal Reserve began the regular publication of transaction-level information on individual open market transactions.

In accordance with the Dodd-Frank Act, this information will be made available on a quarterly basis and with an approximately two-year lag.

The transaction-level detail supplements treaaury extensive aggregate information the Federal Reserve has previously provided in weekly, monthly, greasury quarterly reports, and is available at www. Treasury securities along with primary dealers. Four firms participated in the pilot program.

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These new counterparties were not eligible to participate in other types of OMOs. The program ran for about one year–a period long enough for the FRBNY to evaluate the benefits and costs of a wider range of participants in its SOMA operations–and concluded on July 31, On August 5,the FRBNY announced the introduction of a similar pilot program for a few small broker-dealers to act as new counterparties in its agency MBS market operations.

Pilot program participants will participate in FRBNY operations to conduct secondary market outright purchases or sales of agency MBS along with primary dealers. The program will run for about one year. The FRBNY’s intent in conducting these pilot programs is to explore ways to broaden access to monetary policy operations, and to determine the extent to which additional counterparties beyond the primary dealers can augment the FRBNY’s operational capacity and resiliency in its monetary policy operations.

The last purchase under this program occurred in June More information is available at www. More information is available on the Federal Reserve Board’s website at www.

On December 18,the FOMC announced that in light of cumulative progress toward maximum employment and improvement in the outlook for labor market conditions, it would modestly slow the pace of its additional MBS and longer-term Treasury securities purchases, and it would likely further reduce the pace of asset purchases in measured steps if incoming information broadly supports its expectation of ongoing improvement in labor market conditions and inflation moving back toward its 2 percent longer-run objective.

At subsequent meetings, the FOMC made further measured reductions in the pace of asset purchases. On October 29,the FOMC announced that it had decided to conclude its asset purchase program, and that it would maintain its existing policy of reinvesting principal payments from its holdings of agency debt and MBS in agency MBS and of rolling over maturing Treasury securities at auction.


Temporary OMOs are typically used to address reserve needs that are deemed to be transitory in nature. These operations are either repurchase agreements repos or reverse repos RRPs. A repo is the economic equivalent of a collateralized loan; the difference between the purchase and sale prices reflects the interest on the loan.

Under a reverse repo, the Trading Desk sells a security under an agreement to repurchase that security in the future. A reverse repo is the economic equivalent of collateralized borrowing. Reverse repos are a tool that can be used for managing money market interest rates and are expected to provide the Federal Reserve with greater control over short-term rates. Repo and reverse repo operations are conducted as competitive auctions. Amounts outstanding under repos and reverse repos are reported weekly in tables 1, 2, 5, and 6 of the H.

Since latethe FRBNY has taken steps to expand the types of counterparties for reverse repos to include entities other than primary dealers. This initiative is intended to enhance the Federal Reserve’s capacity to conduct large-scale reverse repo operations to drain reserves beyond what could likely be conducted through primary dealers.

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The additional counterparties are not eligible to participate in transactions treasjry by the FRBNY other than reverse repos.

In andthe FRBNY initiated three waves of counterparty expansions aimed at domestic money market frbwervices. With each wave, the set of eligibility criteria was broadened to allow more and smaller money market funds to participate as counterparties. In Augustthe FRBNY released another round of criteria for treasufy acceptance of banks, savings associations, GSEs, and domestic money market funds as counterparties; institutions accepted under these criteria were announced in January Acceptance as a counterparty does not constitute a public endorsement by the FRBNY frbswrvices any listed counterparty and should not substitute for prudent counterparty risk management and due diligence.

The FRBNY periodically conducts triparty repo and reverse repo transactions as technical exercises to ensure operational readiness at the Federal Reserve, the major clearing banks, the primary dealers, and other counterparties. The transactions are a matter of prudent trbservices planning by the Federal Reserve. They do not represent any change in the stance of monetary policy, and no inference should be drawn about the timing of any change in the stance of monetary policy in the future.

In Decemberthe FRBNY conducted its first set of small-scale, real-value, triparty reverse repos with primary dealers. Additional series of small-scale reverse repos have been conducted sincesome of which were open to the sets of expanded counterparties money market mutual funds, GSEs, banks, and savings associations.

In Augustthe FRBNY conducted a series of small-value repo transactions with primary dealers using all eligible collateral types. The FRBNY had not conducted a repo since Decemberand since that time six primary dealers had been added and there had been several changes to the infrastructure of the krg market. Additional series of repos have been conducted since At the December FOMC meeting, these operations were authorized frbservvices one additional year beyond the previously authorized end date–that is, through January 29, This exercise is intended to further assess the appropriate structure of overnight RRP operations in supporting the implementation of monetary policy during normalization.

These exercises were intended to enhance operational readiness, to increase understanding of the impact of term RRP operations as a supplementary tool to help control the federal funds rate particularly when there are significant and transitory shifts in money market activityand to reduce potential volatility in money market rates.

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This exercise does not represent a change in the stance of monetary policy, and no inference should be drawn about the timing of any change in the stance of monetary policy in the future. The TDF is a program through which the Federal Reserve Banks offer interest-bearing term deposits to eligible institutions. A term deposit is a deposit with a specific maturity date. The TDF was established to facilitate the conduct of monetary policy by providing a tool that may be used to manage the aggregate quantity of reserve balances held by depository institutions and, in particular as with reverse reposto support a reduction in traesury accommodation at the appropriate time.

An increase in term deposits outstanding drains reserve balances because funds to pay for them are removed from the accounts of participating institutions for the life of the term deposit. Term deposits may be awarded either through 1 a competitive single-price auction with a noncompetitive bidding option which allows institutions to place small deposits at the frbservicws determined in the competitive portion of the operationfrbservics a fixed-rate format with full allotment up to a maximum tender amount at an interest rate specified in advance, or 3 a floating-rate format with full allotment up to a maximum tender amount at an interest rate set equal to the sum of the interest rate paid on excess reserves plus a fixed spread.

Beginning in Junethe Federal Reserve has periodically conducted TDF test offerings as a matter of prudent planning.

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These offerings are designed to ensure the operational readiness of the TDF and to provide eligible institutions with an opportunity to gain familiarity with term deposit procedures; they have no implications for the near-term conduct of monetary policy. Additional information about term deposits, auction results, and future test operations is available through the TDF Resource Center at www.

The Federal Reserve has long operated an overnight securities lending facility as a vehicle to address market pressures for specific Treasury securities. Since July 9,this facility has also lent housing-related GSE debt securities that are particularly sought after.

Amounts outstanding under this facility are reported weekly in table 1A of the H. Additional information on the Securities Lending program is available at www. The discount window helps to relieve liquidity strains for individual depository institutions and for the banking system as a whole by providing a source of funding in times of need.

Much of the statutory framework that governs lending to depository institutions is contained in Section 10B of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended. The general policies that govern discount window lending are set forth in the Federal Reserve Board’s Regulation A. Depository institutions have, sincehad access to three types of discount window credit: Primary credit is available to depository institutions in generally sound financial condition with few administrative requirements, at an interest rate that is 50 basis points above the FOMC’s target rate for federal funds.

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Secondary credit may be provided to depository institutions that do not qualify for primary credit, subject to review by the lending Reserve Bank, tdeasury an interest rate that is 50 basis points above the rate on primary credit.

Seasonal credit provides short-term funds to smaller depository institutions that experience regular seasonal swings in loans and deposits. The interest rate frbservicss seasonal credit is a floating rate based on market funding rates. On September 28,the Federal Reserve began the regular publication of detailed information on individual discount window loans.

The disclosure includes the name and identifying details of the depository institution, the amount borrowed, the interest rate paid, and information identifying the types and amount treasuty collateral pledged. This detailed information supplements the extensive aggregate information the Federal Reserve has previously provided in weekly, monthly, and quarterly reports, and is available on the Federal Reserve’s public website at www.

During the financial crisis, frbeervices Federal Reserve modified the terms and conditions of the discount window lending programs in order to promote orderly market functioning.

Information about these actions is available on the Federal Reserve’s public website at www. In extending credit through the discount window, the Federal Reserve closely monitors the financial condition of depository institutions using a four-step krg designed to minimize the risk of loss to the Federal Reserve posed by weak or failing borrowers.

The first step is monitoring, on an ongoing basis, the safety and soundness of all depository institutions that access or may access the discount window and the payment services provided by the Federal Reserve. The second step is identifying institutions whose condition, characteristics, or affiliation would present higher-than-acceptable risk to the Federal Reserve in the absence of controls on their access to Federal Reserve lending facilities and other Federal Reserve services.

The third step is communicating–to staff within the Federal Reserve System and to other supervisory agencies, if and when necessary–relevant information about those institutions identified as posing higher risk.

The fourth step is implementing appropriate measures to mitigate the risks posed by such entities. Includes primary, secondary, and seasonal credit.

Size categories based on total domestic assets from Call Report data as of December 31, Components may not sum to totals because of rounding. Average daily number of depository institutions with credit outstanding. Over this period, a total of institutions borrowed.

Average daily borrowing by all depositories in each category. Includes branches and agencies of foreign banks. At the heart of the condition-monitoring process is an internal rating system that provides a framework for identifying institutions that may pose undue risks to the Federal Reserve. The rating system relies mostly on information from each institution’s primary supervisor, including CAMELS ratings, to identify potentially problematic institutions and classify them according to the severity of the risk they pose to the Federal Reserve.

Amount of primary, secondary, and seasonal credit extended to the top five and other borrowers on each day, as ranked by daily average borrowing. All extensions of discount window credit by the Federal Reserve must be secured to the satisfaction of the lending Reserve Bank by “acceptable collateral.