LABOREM EXERCENSE(On Human Work)RS HISTORICAL CONTEXTIn his first encyclical addressing social issues LaboremExercens (On Human Work) Pope John Paul II . Enciclica Laborem exercens. Main Author: Chiappetta, Luigi. Related Names: John Paul II Pope Language(s): Italian. Published: Napoli: Edizioni dehoniane, c Subjects. Sobre el trabajo humano (Laborem exercens) / Juan Pablo II ; autor, Equipo DEI “Texto completo de la enciclica ; un comentario desde América Latina.”.
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Both kinds of goods become accessible to the worker through the wage which he receives as remuneration for his work. The responsibility of the indirect employer differs from that of the direct employer-the term itself indicates that the responsibility is less direct-but it remains a true responsibility: In this case, it is the loss of a subject of work, whose efforts of mind and body could contribute laborfm the common good of his own country, but these efforts, this contribution, are instead offered to another society which in a oaborem has less right to them than the person’s country of origin.
It is a matter of highlighting the deontological and moral aspect.
Laborem Exercens (14 September ) | John Paul II
But it is fitting that they should be able to fulfil their tasks in accordance with their own nature, without being discriminated against and without being excluded from jobs for which they are capable, but also without lack of respect for their family aspirations and for their specific role in contributing, together with men, to the good of society.
If this is not done, incalculable damage is inevitably done throughout the economic process, not only economic damage but first and foremost damage to man. And yet, in spite of all this toil-perhaps, in a sense, because of it-work is a good thing for man. Here we return once more to the first principle of the whole ethical and social order, namely, the principle of the common use of goods. While it may seem that in the industrial process it is the machine that “works” and man merely supervises it, making it function and keeping it going in various ways, it is also true that for this very reason industrial development provides grounds for reproposing in new ways the question of human work.
Influence in this direction should be exercised by all the International Organizations whose concern it is, beginning with the United Nations Organization.
It leads to an increase in the quantity of things produced by work, and in many cases improves their quality. In the present document, which has human work as its main theme, it is right to confirm all the effort with which the Church’s teaching has striven and continues to strive always to ensure the priority of work and, thereby, man’s character as a subject in social life and, especially, in the dynamic structure of the whole economic process.
After outlining the important role that concern for providing employment for all workers plays in safeguarding respect for the inalienable rights of man in view of his work, it is worthwhile taking a closer look at these rights, which in the final analysis are formed within the relationship between worker and direct employer.
But here it must be emphasized, in general terms, that the person who works desires not only due remuneration for his work; he also wishes that, within the production process, provision be made for him to be able to know that in his work, even on something that is owned in common, he is working “for himself”. Through this conclusion one rightly comes to recognize the pre-eminence of the subjective meaning of work over the objective one. The vital interests of the workers are to a certain extent common for all of them; at the same time however each type of work, each profession, has its own specific character which should find a particular reflection in these organizations.
A third sector concerns the right to a pension and to insurance for old age and in case of accidents at work. The progress in question must be made through man and for man and it must produce its fruit in man. While admitting that it is a legitimate means, we must at the same time emphasize that a strike remains, in a sense, an extreme means.
They cannot be possessed against labour, they cannot even be possessed for possession’s sake, because the only legitimate title to their possession- whether in the form of private ownerhip or in the form of public or collective ownership-is that they should serve labour, and thus, by serving labour, that they should make possible the achievement of the first principle of this order, namely, the universal destination of goods and the right to common use of them. From the beginning it was part of the Church’s teaching, her concept of man and life in society, and, especially, the social morality which she worked out according to the needs of the different ages.
At the same time, however, I am making them, according to the indication in the Gospel, in order to bring out from the heritage of the Gospel “what is new and what is old” 7.
The Planet Is Alive The indirect employer substantially determines one or other facet of the labour relationship. On the other hand: This conflict, interpreted by some as a socioeconomic class conflict, found expression in the ideological conflict between liberalism, understood as the ideology of capitalism, and Marxism, understood as the ideology of scientiflc socialism and communism, which professes to act as the spokesman for the working class and the worldwide proletariat.
If it is true that capital, as the whole of the means of production, is at the same time the product of the work of generations, it is equally true that capital is being unceasingly created through the work done with the help of all these means of production, and these means can be seen as a great workbench at which the present generation of workers is working day after day.
Both the enciclicaa industrialization that gave rise to what is called the worker question and the subsequent industrial and post-industrial changes show in an eloquent manner that, even in the age of ever more mechanized “work”, the proper subject of work continues to be man. Finally, we must say at least a few words on the subject of emigration in search of work.
The conflict originated in the fact that the workers put their powers at the disposal of the labofem, and these, following the principle of eenciclica profit, tried to establish the lowest possible wages for the work done by the employees. Careful attention must be devoted to the physical and psychological working conditions of disabled people-as for all workers-to their just remuneration, to encicliac possibility of their promotion, and to the elimination of various obstacles.
This is still not theoretical materialism in the full sense of the term, but it is certainly practical materialism, a materialism judged capable of satisfying man’s needs, not so much on the grounds of premises derived from materialist theory, as on the grounds of a particular way of evaluating things, and so on the grounds of a certain hierarchy of goods based on the greater immediate attractiveness of what is material. This truth, which in a sense constitutes the fundamental and perennial heart of Christian teaching on human work, has had and continues to have primary significance for the formulation of the important social problems characterizing whole ages.
Exegcens for work -that is to say, for sharing efficiently in the modern production process-demands greater and greater preparation and, before all else, proper training. Thus the issue of ownership or property enters from the beginning into the whole of this difficult historical process. Nevertheless it is obvious that materialism, including its dialectical form, is incapable of providing sufficient and definitive bases for thinking about human work, in order that the primacy of man over the capital instrument, the primacy of the person over things, may find in it adequate and irrefutable confirmation and support.
One method used by unions in pursuing the just rights of their members is the strike or work stoppage, as a kind of ultimatum to the competent bodies, especially the employers. The present reflections on work are not intended to follow a different line, but rather to be in organic connection with the whole tradition of this teaching and activity. Various forms of neo-capitalism or collectivism have developed. In the light of the above truth we see clearly, first of all, that capital cannot be separated from labour; in no way can labour be opposed to capital or capital to labour, and still less can the actual people behind these concepts be opposed to each other, as will be explained later.
In all cases of this sort, in every social situation of this type, there is a confusion or even a reversal of the order laid down from the beginning by the words of the Book of Genesis: Work is one of the characteristics that distinguish man from the rest of creatures, whose activity for sustaining their lives cannot be called work. Obviously, the antinomy between labour and capital under consideration here- the antinomy in which labour was separated from capital and set up in opposition to it, in a certain sense on the ontic level, as if it were just an element like any other in the economic process-did not originate merely in the philosophy and economic theories of the eighteenth century; rather it originated in the whole of the economic and social practice of that time, the time of the birth and rapid development of industrialization, in which what was mainly seen was the possibility of vastly increasing material wealth, means, while the end, that is to say, man, who should exercend served by the means, was ignored.
The criterion of full employment will only be achieved through planning and coordination among all the indirect employers, and a better coordination of education with employment. If some dependence is discovered in the work process, it is dependence on the Giver of all the resources of creation, and also on other human beings, those to whose work exetcens initiative we owe the perfected and increased possibilities of our own work.
Catalog Record: Il lavoro umano nell’enciclica “Laborem | Hathi Trust Digital Library
As one example, John Paul mentions manufacturing companies in developed countries that purchase raw materials from less developed countries. In a modern work-space it becomes very complex to establish ownership rights.
Within the individual States there are ministries or public departments and also various social institutions set up for this purpose. The Church’s teaching has always expressed the strong and deep convinction that man’s work concerns not only the economy but also, and especially, personal values.
Catalog Record: Sobre el trabajo humano (Laborem exercens) | Hathi Trust Digital Library
There is a lack of forms of legal protection for the agricultural workers themselves and for their families in case of old age, sickness or unemployment. This awareness is extinguished within him exercems a system of excessive bureaucratic centralization, which makes the worker feel that he is just a cog in a huge machine moved from above As a person he works, he performs various actions belonging to the work process; independently of their objective content, these actions must all serve to realize his humanity, to fulfil the calling to be a person that is his by reason of his very humanity.
Each country should have laws to protect the rights of immigrant workers, so that they receive equal treatment.