Pathogens and Their Weaponization. Geoffrey Zubay. Columbia University Press . Agents of Bioterrorism. Google Preview. Pub Date: February Download Citation on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Geoffrey Zubay and others published Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and their Weaponization }. [Book Review: Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and Their Weaponization.] Article in The Quarterly Review of Biology 81(3) · September with 5.
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Despite the variability in their clinical presentation, pathogenic rickettsiae cause debilitating disease, and any one of the highly virulent rickettsial species listed in table 1 biotsrrorism be used as a potential biological weapon. Each chapter considers a particular pathogen The severity of rickettsial disease has been associated with pathogen virulence and host-related factors e.
Several biological agents, including Rickettsia prowazekii and Coxiella burnetii —the causative agents of louseborne typhus and Q fever, respectively—have been weaponized and field-tested, with variable effectiveness, by the former Soviet Union, Japan, and the United States [ 23 ]. Thus, the use of these agents for mass transmission requires a massive number of either infected arthropod vectors or kilograms of aerosolized rickettsiae.
The Challenge Of Rickettsial Pathogens. Add comment Close comment form modal. Comparison of selected rickettsial pathogens with examples of bacteria used in biological warfare.
Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in canine population and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks from southern Metro Manila and Laguna, Philippines. Reply to Wasko et al. Surveillance of naturally or intentionally released pathogens is a first step in preventing the epidemics via rapid identification of causative agents and pathogsns the degree of their virulence.
Abstract Because of their unique biological characteristics, such as environmental stability, small size, aerosol transmission, persistence in infected hosts, low infectious dose, and high associated morbidity and mortality, Rickettsia prowazekii and Coxiella burnetii have been weaponized. The conditions that allow for the coexistence of body lice and a susceptible population could be the starting point for a bioterrorism-initiated infection, because the release of the rickettsiae would set off a subsequent chain reaction.
Humans serve as a host to R. Legal Challenges Pathoyens by Bioterrorism. Considering that the median infective dose of R. Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar. Patients with this disease could serve as a long-term source of R. Because of their unique biological characteristics, such as environmental stability, small size, aerosol transmission, persistence in infected hosts, low infectious dose, and high associated morbidity and mortality, Rickettsia prowazekii and Coxiella burnetii have been weaponized.
Rickettsial diseases are widely distributed throughout the world as zoonotic cycles in foci of endemicity, with sporadic and often seasonal outbreaks developing [ 56 ]. Columbia University Press Amazon.
In short, mass propagation of rickettsial pathogens and their purification weaponlzation aerosolization remain a major challenge. Rickettsiae are maintained in nature in their arthropod vectors, via transovarial and transstadial transmission, and human infection occurs accidentally through either a bioterroris from the infected arthropod or contact with Rickettsia -laden feces.
Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. However, from time to time, these infections have reemerged in epidemic form in human populations e. Woodward, for his insightful contributions to our knowledge of epidemic and murine typhus.
Thank you for submitting bioterrorsim comment on this article. Although the qnd of rickettsial pathogens that increase their potential for use as a biological weapon parallel those of other highly publicized, weaponized pathogens, realistically several compounding factors would make it very difficult to produce large quantities of highly purified weapon-quality rickettsiae.
View large Download slide. In the present article, the pros and cons of weaponizing rickettsial pathogens and the potential of bioterrorsim pathogens in the hands of bioterrorists are discussed, taking into consideration the biological attributes of this group of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria.
It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Account Options Sign in. To slow down the epidemic, the most significant challenge is to identify the source of infection intentional vs.
Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.
Preventive measures theur complicated because of the lack of effective and safe rickettsial vaccines [ 11 ]. He has published more than research papers and several books, including Biochemistry ; Genetics ; and Origins of Life on the Earth and in the Cosmos. Biological Attributes Of Rickettsial Pathogens. According to the World Health Organization’s estimate, if 50 kg of aerosolized R.
Each chapter considers a particular pathogen from the standpoint of its history, molecular biology, pathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, weaponization, and defenses. Pathogens and Their Weaponization Geoffrey L. You must accept the terms and conditions. The book also examines strategies for making vaccines and protecting the population in a bioterror attack.
Zubay No preview available – The authors examine thirteen disease-causing agents, including those responsible for anthrax, the plague, smallpox, influenza, and SARS. Drug Discovery and Biodefense.
Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.
Other editions – View all Agents of Fo As obligate intracellular bacteria, rickettsiae require eukaryotic host cells for propagation, and the isolation and purification of rickettsiae without host cell contaminants would require highly skilled personnel and elaborate laboratory procedures. These biological attributes would make the pathogenic rickettsiae desirable bioterrorism agents.
However, production of highly purified, virulent, weapon-quality rickettsiae is a daunting task that requires expertise and elaborate, state-of-the art laboratory procedures to retain rickettsial survival and virulence. I agree to the terms and conditions.